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2017-09-13 18:09 来源:百战网 手机看新闻

日本发现冰的300种新结构

[提要]你知道吗自然界的冰也存在各种各样的状态,到目前为止科学家发现的冰的结构已经很多了但是到底有多少种还是个未知数。 据《新科学家》杂志网站近日报道,日本科学家通过计算机模拟,发现了300多种全新冰结构,多孔超

   你知道吗自然界的冰也存在各种各样的状态,到目前为止科学家发现的冰的结构已经很多了但是到底有多少种还是个未知数。

  据《新科学家》杂志网站近日报道,日本科学家通过计算机模拟,发现了300多种全新冰结构,多孔超轻类似气凝胶,其空间网状结构中充满气体分子,而外表呈固体状,并发现迄今密度最小(即最轻)的固体水结构,研究这些新结构有助于揭开水分子在低温低压等极端环境下的性质。

  人们一般认为,冰块是由水冷却而成的固态晶体,晶格呈六角形结构。但其实,并非所有的冰都是这种六角形结构,科学家们已经从实验上验证了17种冰结构的存在,这些不同于常规冰的结构一般存在于外行星或外行星大气层中。

日本发现冰的300种新结构

  水分子在比大气压更高的压力下被压缩时,其形成的冰块会比常规冰的密度更大;而当气压极低时,水分子会变成类似棉花糖、充满气体、密度更低的晶体结构。现已发现两种低密度冰结构:密度为常规冰80%的太空富勒烯状冰块,以及结构像沸石矿的沸石冰,其内的水分子模块就像乐高积木塔一样,密度为常规冰的50%到90%。

  发表在最新一期《化学物理学杂志》上的研究论文称,日本冈山大学科学家松本正和(音译)及其同事利用一种类似分子积木游戏的计算机模型,发现了第18种可能存在的冰结构。他们以沸石冰为基础,像玩积木一样,将沸石冰中的某些结构移走,换成其他的结构模块,从而让其越变越轻。最终他们模拟出300多种密度更小的纳米冰结构,并发现这些结构在低压和接近绝对零度(-273.15℃)条件下能保持稳定。

  松本表示,他们通过模拟分子积木,已经搭建出迄今密度最小的气凝胶样冰结构,由于这种结构只能在低温低压等极端条件下稳定存在,要在现实世界合成极为困难。他说:“不过,我们的研究为低密度冰块描绘了一幅蓝图,下一步就是如何在实验室合成出这些惊人的结构,揭示水分子在外太空的性质之谜。”

  日本的这次发现对冰的研究和发展有的很大的作用。为以后的提供有效的依据。

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